Data provided by Applied Health
side effects, nutrient depletions, herbal interactions and health notes:
• Studies have shown that grapefruit juice significantly increases estradiol levels in the blood. Do not drink grapefruit juice or eat grapefruit while taking this medication.1
• It may also be possible that supplements containing quercetin also increase the levels of estradiol in the blood. Talk to your pharmacist if you are taking any supplements that contain this nutrient.2
• This drug may increase risk of folic acid deficiency, which could affect reproductive and cardiovascular health. Supplementation is considered beneficial.3
• Vitamin C may result in increased estrogen effects.4
• The following herbs may affect hormone levels: Agnus Castus (Vitex), Alfalfa, Bayberry, Black Cohosh, Dong Quai, Ginseng, Horseradish, Licorice Root, Pleurisy Root, Red Clover, Red Sage, Saw Palmetto, Tobacco, Vervain, and Wild Yam. Consult your pharmacist for more information.5
References1 Schubert W, Cullberg G, Edgar B, Hedner T. Inhibition of 17 beta-estradiol metabolism by grapefruit juice in ovariectomized women. Maturitas 1994;20:155-63.
1 Schubert W, Eriksson U, Edgar B, et al. Flavonoids in grapefruit juice inhibit the in vitro hepatic metabolism of 17 beta-estradiol. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1995;3:219-24.
1 Weber A, Jager R, Borner A, et al. Can grapefruit juice influence ethinylestradiol bioavailability? Contraception 1996;53:41-7.
2 Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, et al. Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 1998;139:4252-63.
3 Kornberg A, Segal R, Theitler J, et al: Folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and peripheral polyneuropathy due to oral contraceptives, Isr J Med Sci, 1989, 25 (3): 142-5.
3 Harper JM, Levine AJ, Rosenthal DL, et al: Erythrocyte folate levels, oral contraceptive use and abnormal cervical cytology, Acta Cytol, 1994, 38 (3): 324-30.
4 Blum M, Kitai E, Ariel Y, Et Al: Oral Contraceptive Lowers Serum Magnesium, Harefuah, 1991, 121 (10):363-4.
5 Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines A Guide for Health-care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
5 Brinker, F Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998
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The information in Drug Watch is provided as a courtesy to NewsTarget readers by Applied Health Solutions in cooperation with Healthway Solutions. Although the information is presented with scientific references, we do not wish to imply that this represents a comprehensive list of considerations about any specific drug, herb or nutrient. Nor should this information be considered a substitute for the advice of your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare practitioner. Please read the disclaimer about the intentions and limitations of the information provided on these pages. It is important to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all other drugs and nutritional supplements that you are taking if they are recommending a new medication. Copyright © 2007 by Applied Health Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.