Researchers from China and Japan investigated the colitis-associated cancer (CAC)-preventive effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Ilex rotunda, commonly known as Kurogane holly. They reported their findings in an article published in the Journal of Natural Medicines.
CAC is one of the most serious complications of inflammatory bowel disease.
Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and anti-inflammatory agents do not always prevent CAC, making it difficult to find effective treatments for it.
I. rotunda is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used clinically to treat intestinal disease.
Using nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation model in Caco-2 cells, the researchers screened the ethyl acetate extracts of I. rotunda for potential CAC-preventive agents.
They chose this model because activated NF-kB can be used by tumor cells at the early stage of tumorigenesis.
The researchers isolated 24 components from the extract and identified them via multiple chromatography and spectral analyses.
MTT experiments in IEC-6 and RAW264.7 cells revealed that all 24 compounds were non-toxic to normal cells.
The researchers also found that one of the compounds, rotundic acid (RA), can inhibit LPS-induced NF-kB translocation in Caco-2 cells.
Additionally, RA did not induce apoptosis in Caco-2 tumor cells but showed anti-inflammatory activity in immune and intestinal epithelium cells (RAW264.7 and IEC-6 cells).
On the other hand, the removal of RA and its 28-O-glucopyranoside from the extract reduced its in vivo CAC-preventive activity.
Han Y, Zhang L, Li W, Liu X, Xiao J, Chen G, Li N. NATURAL CAC CHEMOPREVENTIVE AGENTS FROM ILEX ROTUNDA THUNB. Journal of Natural Medicines. 13 February 2019;73(3):456–467. DOI: 10.1007/s11418-019-01281-z