Space dust is mostly made up of carbon, oxygen, and silicon. But it also contains PQQ. So do the cells of living organisms like microbes, plans, and humans, leading researchers to theorize that the compound contributed to the formation of life on Earth.
PQQ plays a critical role in the energy production process of mitochondria. It increases the amount of energy produced by living cells and the entire body. It also sharpens memory and improves other brain functions.
In addition to being found inside space dust, PQQ can also be produced on Earth through a natural fermentation process. Called BioPQQ, it is considered safe for human consumption as a health supplement and can decrease bad cholesterol levels in patients.
Natural PQQ can also be found in practically all plant-based foods. However, even eating a lot of plant food will not provide enough PQQ to activate its health benefits. (Related: Study: PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) may prevent and even reverse Alzheimer’s.)
PQQ is connected to an important class of enzymes that handle growth, energy production, survival, and other important functions of the cell. Without the compound, the cells will stop working correctly and eventually die.
Numerous studies investigated the direct effect of PQQ on important enzymes that produce energy. The tests also evaluated the effects of the altered cellular energy production on animal and human health.
Taking PQQ was shown to reverse cognitive issues stemming from chronic oxidative stress. It also improved the memory functions of lab animals. Other experiments reported that the compound could shield neurons from the harmful effects of Alzheimer's disease and improved mental function when taken alongside coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). It also stopped the onset of osteoarthritis, boosted antioxidant potential and energy metabolism, suppressed disease-causing inflammation, and decreased LDL cholesterol levels.
PQQ became an even more effective brain booster when taken alongside CoQ10, a nutrient that was naturally produced in the body and also supported brain functions. Both animal studies and human clinical trials demonstrated that PQQ was better than CoQ10 if administered on their own. Furthermore, taking 20 mg of PQQ and 300 mg of CoQ10 together improved the mental processing speed faster than taking either compound alone.
In 2015, a Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company (MGC) research team evaluated the effects of PQQ on serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in healthy human adult volunteers. They administered 20 mg of BioPQQ supplements for a total of 12 weeks, and analyzed any changes during the sixth and 12th month.
The researchers found that taking PQQ supplements resulted in a considerable decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels by the sixth week of the treatment. The compound achieved this by raising the activity levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPk), an enzyme that assisted in managing blood cholesterol levels.
AMPk is an enzyme found inside living cells. It exerts complete control over the energy metabolism of a cell. If AMPk activity is low, it causes chronic inflammation, increases blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, hampers mitochondrial functions and numbers, increases visceral fat in the belly, and causes insulin resistance. Poor AMPk activity can lead to faster aging, neurodegeneration, obesity, and runaway levels of blood sugar.
For people who are considering taking PQQ supplements, they should stick to BioPQQ, as all other PQQ forms are artificially synthesized using toxic chemicals. The recommended daily dose is 10 to 20 mg.