For their study, the investigators began by collecting the necessary ingredients:
Once all of the ingredients were procured, the researchers proceeded to make bread based off of traditional Russian bread recipes. All in all, they were able to make at least four different kinds of bread. Three of the breads had their sugar completely replaced with fucoidan combined with either stevia syrup or stevioside. All of the breads were subjected to testing three hours and 72 hours after they were baked.
To assess the quality of the breads, the researchers utilized two main criteria. The first was the organoleptic properties of the bread, which basically meant judging the appearance and taste of their baked goods. The second was the physical and chemical properties, or the moisture content, swelling capacity, and friability, or the breads' tendency to crumble.
Based on these parameters, the researchers found that the inclusion of activated water caused the bread to look more desirable to consumers. "The use of activated water enhances the accumulation of yeast cells, the development of protein matrix, and a more complete expansion of starch granules," wrote the researchers. In addition, the bread was less prone to breaking up and crumbling, a characteristic that resulted from the coagulation of protein (gluten) and reduction of interior air layers.
These effects were also observed with the other ingredients. "The use of various ingredients...in bread production intensifies the dough-making process, makes the yeast cells accumulate more actively, and develops the protein matrix, which eventually has a positive effect on the quality of the finished product," the researchers noted. (Related: 3 Ways To Make Bread Healthy Again (Gluten Free Recipe Included).)
When it came to taste, the bread that had stevia syrup and fucoidan had the best one and was described as having a “typical, balanced taste.” The bread that had only used fucoidan as its sugar substitute lacked sweetness, while the bread that used stevioside and fucoidan was sweet but had a rather bitter aftertaste.
Furthermore, their findings remained consistent even after 72 hours had passed. Very few changes had occurred in the microstructure of the bread, which the researchers credited to stevia syrup and fucoidan: "The full replacement of sugar with stevia syrup and fucoidan slows the staling process most effectively, something that is confirmed by the less intensive changes in the microstructure."
As such, the researchers concluded that using combined plant extract additives and activated water would result in higher-quality fresh bread. On top of making bread seem more desirable to consumers, these ingredients could greatly improve the shelf life of bread.
Visit Food.news to read up on more studies and news about healthier bread alternatives.